It is said that sharing knowledge is the best thing you can do as a student. So i will try to enlighten some points about the special theory of relativity. The special theory of relativity deals with cases of constant velocity. I hope this brief description of phenomenons will make you curious about the theory and motivate you to study about it.
1. CLOCKS ON TWO OBSERVERS :
Let there be two observers A and B. A is stationary on Earth and B is moving with a certain velocity with respect to A on an aircarft. Both A and B initially( before take off of B) have syncronised their clocks and they show the same time. Now according to this theory, the observer A will see the clock of B to be showing different time than his(in A’s frame of reference). Now according to relativity theory observer B will also see A’s clock to be showing different time. In short both the observers will see the others clock to be unsynchronized.(we will not go for the derivation).
2. LEADING CLOCKS LAG:
Consider the previous situation of A and B, but this time B has two clocks on the aircraft(one at the front of aircraft and another at the back). According to Einstein’s special theory the forward clock on B will be lagging than the backward clock(wrt to A) i.e the forward clock will be running slowly than the backward. But according to B both the clocks on the aircraft will be syncronised. This is explained by the theory of relativity.
3. PRINCIPLE OF LIGHT CONSTANCY:
According to this principle the relative velocity of light remains constant irrespective of whether the observer is moving or stationary. So in both the cases i.e. the observer is moving towards or away from the light source, the velocity of light wrt to observer remains constant. The relative velocity is equal to the speed of light.
4. PHENOMENON OF LENGTH CONTRACTION:
Let A be on a bridge observing an underneath passing train in which B is the passenger. According to this phenomenon, the length of the train as observed by A will be less than the actual length of the train. B will measure the length equal to the actual length of the train.
5. THE TWIN PARADOX:
This is one of the most famous paradox in the special theory of relativity. It goes as follows: let say there are twin brothers, one A and the other B. B takes of from the earth and goes to the nearby star and comes back. Now according to the special theory, when B comes back, he will see/deduce that A is younger than him. On the contrary A will deduce that B has become younger than him. This paradox is explained from the theory of relativity. (This actually occurs due to change in direction of reference frame when B takes a backward turn from the nearby star to come back).
6 BREAKING THE ULTIMATE SPEED LIMIT:
It is proved from the cause and effect relationship that no body can have speed geater than the speed of light.(derivation is available on various sites)
These are some of the important phenomenons/effects related to the special theory of relativity ( there are more of these). Learning and knowing of these phenomenons was really astonishing. Further there is THE GENERAL THEORY OF RELATIVITY which takes into consideration the acceleration of the body.